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Fixation durations before word skipping in reading. Krampe, R. Timing, sequencing, and executive control in repetitive movement production. Microsaccade dynamics during covert attention. Vision Research , 45 , Liang, J. Scaling of horizontal and vertical fixational eye movements. Physical Review E , 71 , Phase-synchronization decay of fixational eye movements. On the basis of the distribution of improvements in the PHQ-D That is, participants only learned how good the current applicant indicating two groups, we assigned participants to the depressed was compared with other applicants seen in the game thus far see sample if their PHQ-D scores had improved by less than 2 points.
Figure 1. Performance and payment depended on the absolute This resulted in an approximate median split, with 15 participants rank of the chosen candidate. Participants received 40 points for in the depressed sample and 12 participants in the recovered the best, 39 for the second best and so on. After the task, experi- sample. The recovery group had been admitted slightly— but not menters exchanged points for Euros at a rate of points! Before each game, experimenters asked participants to 1. No significant differences in medication existed between the recovery and the depressed group BDI.
Participation lasted about 45 min, and participants tzinger et al. Per- exact payment depended on performance. The depression computer-based experiment Czienskowski, At the MPI, participants filled out the screening depression e. Participants with BDI at the end of the testing session. Reliability in our completed at admission. Healthy n! German version of the Patient Health Questionnaire. Finding performance outliers see Figure 2, Panel A , we repeated the analysis, excluding participants earning less than 25 points; these subsequent analyses yielded similar results.
However, we interpret this with caution because within groups, correlations between BDI and search, or performance, were non- significant. Decision Strategy The performance differences in the secretary task may result from the decision strategies participants employed. To investigate this, we computationally modeled decisions with a multiple thresh- old strategy Bearden et al.
This strategy extends the successful single threshold rule, proposed in the orig- Figure 1. A screenshot of the task. Follow-up contrasts showed that seen candidates. For example, if the first parameter is 10, the healthy participants had significantly lower BDI scores than did participant would not make a choice before seeing the first nine recovered participants, t 51! The param- participants, t 51!
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To investigate how participants solved the secretary problem, Participants did not differ significantly on how well they were we considered several measures: the median number of points described by the strategy, F 2, 51! Follow-up contrasts indicated that depressed par- ences, F 2, 51! We found no significant differences in per- pants see Table 3. Participant groups differed in r 54! Follow-up Mann- correlations were not significant within groups. We present one of the first studies showing that clinically depressed individuals can outperform healthy individuals in a laboratory task: Performing a sequential decision task, clinically depressed individuals received higher payoffs than did a participants of similar age and education who were not depressed and b partic- ipants recovering from a depressive episode.
Our research suggests that sequential decision making may represent a class of problems in which depression leads to in- creased performance. Healthy participants perform below optimal levels in sequential choice tasks because their acceptance thresh- olds are too low e. In our task, an Figure 2. Panel A shows search length and performance in the three analysis of the decision process suggested that depressed partici- groups. Panel B shows the correlation between Beck Depression Inventory pants performed better because they had higher thresholds and BDI score and the first threshold; the dotted line denotes the regression accepted options less readily than did healthy individuals.
In fact, line, r 54! Furthermore, sequential choice some participants being poorly described by the strategy, we represents a relatively complex task requiring cognitive abilities excluded seven participants for whom the strategy described less Burns et al. A reanalysis in the restricted sample studies claiming that negative affect and the desire to increase showed the same pattern of results as the full sample. The re- control promotes analytical, systematic, and thorough information stricted sample also allowed us to conduct a mediation analysis to processing e.
A hierarchical However, although we found that depressed participants had regression analysis, with dummy variables for the comparison higher thresholds than did nondepressed participants, we did not between healthy and depressed versus healthy and recovered en- find significant differences in the self-reported goals of partici- tered in the first step and the first threshold entered in the second pants. Thus, in- performance bdepressed!
However, p! Instead, TH1 had a significant influence on performance bTH1! Furthermore, Burns et al. The relation between depression and cognitive functioning has Our study also offers insight into whether subclinical levels of sparked considerable debate. Although some studies reported def- depression can be compared with clinical depression. For information on the higher thresholds, see online supplementary material. Are individual differences in levels of depression than healthy individuals—showed indication performance on perceptual and cognitive optimization problems deter- of recovery.
This suggests that—at least in sequential choice— mined by general intelligence? The Journal of Problem Solving, 1, 5— This finding speaks against a u-shaped relation Cella, M. Impaired flexible decision- making in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, between performance and depression severity, though one should , — Dysphoria and decision making: subclinical sample. Participants in the recovery group were pa- Limited information use for evaluations of multiattribute targets.
Jour- tients that had experienced clinical symptoms but were on the way nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, — Readers should Costello, E. Information processing for decision making in keep in mind that roughly half the participants received medication depressed women. A study of subjective utilities. Journal of Affective that could have contributed to a change in depressive symptoms, as Disorders, 5, — Al- Czienskowski, U.
The candidate search task [Computer software]. Depression and the impression- formation continuum: Piecemeal processing despite the availability of the recovered participants responded better to medication or might category information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, have received medication prior to hospitalization. Future research — Resource-allocation model of the recovery, subclinical levels of depression, and medication. A fur- effects of depressed mood states on memory.
Forgus ther limitation of our study is the relatively small sample size and Eds. Though past research links Germany: Hogrefe. Who solved the secretary problem? Statistical Sci- depression, we do not deny that other psychopathologies could ence, 4, — Last, it needs to be men- Gleicher, F. Effect of depression on quantity and tioned that our diagnosis of MDD consisted of a single opinion.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychol- Future studies should investigate performance in clinical popula- ogy, 61, — Gotlib, I. Cognition and depression: Current status and future directions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, Still, our findings offer new insight concerning depression and — We found that depression led individuals Gualtieri, C. Neurocognition in in a sequential decision-making task to set higher thresholds for depression: Patients on and off medication versus healthy comparison acceptable options, and this led to better choices.
This finding subjects. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 18, indicates that the effect of depression on cognitive functioning is — Cognitive functioning in major depres- cognitive functioning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 3, 1—7. References Enhanced accuracy of mental state decoding in dysphoric col- Alloy, L. Judgment of contingency in de- lege students. Journal of Ex- perimental Psychology: General, , — Beck- Bern, Switzerland: Huber Verlag. Andrews, P. Psycho- Olmos, J. Effects of logical Review, , — The role of cognitive impairment in general functioning in with major depressive disorder.
Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, major depression. Psychiatry Research, , — Depressive deficits in memory: Focusing Bearden, J. Sequential obser- attention improves subsequent recall. Journal of Experimental Psychol- vation and selection with rank-dependent payoffs: An experimental ogy: General, , — Management Science, 52, — The epidemiology of depression. Hammen Eds.