Small effective baselines will be beneficial due to reduced sensitivity to topography. By combining Eqs. A small v a is also beneficial by reducing sensitivity to noise and v e. A further increase in B t would likely result in increased rotation of floes and possible deformation, further complicating the results. Even without significant rotation, it may be necessary to consider phase ambiguities in discontinuities. For the example of a closing lead in the Fram Strait, the interferometric phase could be tracked continuously near the southeastern part of the image.
Sea ice is a significant component of Arctic ecosystems and its dynamic nature is of critical relevance to human near-coastal or offshore activities. Multiple techniques exist to evaluate sea ice drift across large spatial scales using remote sensing but often with limited accuracy due to the temporal lag between satellite overpasses. We here investigate the potential of single-pass TanDEM-X interferometry S-ATI for deriving more accurate instantaneous drift speeds with a meter-scale resolution capable of supporting stakeholders.
The approach was further used to determine the closing speed of a fracture in the Fram Strait. Lastly, the approach was demonstrated in the Vilkitsky Strait, an important strategic location for trans-Arctic shipping as part of the Northern Sea Route.
Here, S-ATI showed capable of discriminating different dynamic regimes and identify zones of shear and convergence not easily identified in the amplitude image. The case study in the Vilkitsky Strait not only demonstrates the application for InSAR-derived drift speeds, but also the ability to resolve important sea ice processes at a scale and accuracy which have been difficult to assess in the past.
As an example, we were able to resolve short-lived transient convergence processes otherwise invisible to SAR approaches. Such detailed information pertaining to drift speed could potentially be used to accurately determine convergence and divergence in a similar approach to that applied to landfast ice. With the meter-scale resolution of stripmap X-band SAR, this approach would likely be able to provide statistics of maximum pressure loads on structures relevant for engineering design and planning of offshore installations.
Furthermore, instantaneous velocity measurements may provide new insight into how drifting sea ice respond to the surface current and wind fields and how the motion of ice floes differs at a moment in time.
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Even with the potential application of S-ATI for evaluating short-lived processes, it will inevitably require a careful analysis of the environmental forcing over a longer time period. Only then it is possible to know whether the phase-derived drift can be representative on scales from minutes to hours. In this context, it would also be beneficial to design experiments to study ice motion on temporal scales from sub-seconds i. Furthermore, an important question is what temporal resolution is required to investigate short-lived events such as transient convergence or strain response upon ice impact with structures.
This may also be detectable on scales of several seconds but questionable on longer timescales of minutes. It is presently largely an open question what short-lived processes occur at different timescales and what temporal baselines would be best suited to capture them. The largest limitations of S-ATI are likely related to data availability and the fact that only the cross-track component of drift speed is captured.
The latter results in absolute drift speed being difficult to interpret and potentially invisible if motion is directly in the along-track direction. However, existing spaceborne along-track InSAR systems such as TanDEM-X are predominantly used for proof of concept, while future dedicated systems for ocean applications would largely reduce these limitations. TanDEM-X is presently the only system that can produce consecutive SAR images with the millisecond-scale temporal lag necessary to derive interferometric estimates of instantaneous sea ice drift speed.
However, with potential newer systems such as the proposed TanDEM-L mission, higher temporal resolution of drift estimates may be obtained by utilizing interferograms from multiple sensors. DOD conducted the interferometric processing and analysis and drafted the initial manuscript. LEBE provided critical guidance on all aspects of the analysis and manuscript. JMJ and ARM contributed to the collection and interpretation of the ground-based radar data and derived motion products. RR and FJM provided valuable expertise relevant to interferometric analysis and interpretation.
HE provided expertise related to sea ice deformation and processes in the different study regions. YF contributed to the collection and analysis of the mooring data.
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All co-authors also provided valuable recommendations and corrections, resulting in the final paper. We thank two reviewers, including Wolfgang Dierking, for substantially improving the paper. This paper was edited by Lars Kaleschke and reviewed by Wolfgang Dierking and one anonymous referee. Bamler, R. Berg, A. Remote, 52, —, Comiso, J. Dammann, D. Dammert, P. Remote Sens. Dierking, W.
Druckenmiller, M. Eicken, H. Ferretti, A. Fukamachi, Y. Goldstein, R. Haller, M. Hibler, W. Hollands, T. Hutchings, J. Jones, J. Shelf Res.
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Karvonen, J. Korosov, A. Remote, 53, —, Krupnik, I. Kwok, R. Lang, O. Li, S. Mahoney, A. Marbouti, M. Meier, W. Meyer, F. Morris, K.
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Buy eBook. FAQ Policy. About this book The author presents in The Drift of Sea Ice the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. Show all. From the reviews: "This is the first comprehensive text on dynamics of sea ice, a historic first! Table of contents 11 chapters Table of contents 11 chapters Introduction Pages Drift ice material Pages Ice kinematics Pages In a Visiting Scientist report the quality of this product is compared with other ice drift products.
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Other validation data can be found in the product specific validation report, also referred to in Documentation and links , below. Which satellite sensors are processed? What is the spatial resolution of this product? What is the time-span of this product?
From the datasets distributed every day, which one should I use? Today's product file is empty or has large data gaps, what happened? Where can I find the ice motion for Antarctic regions? I do not fancy NetCDF, do you have other formats? Documentation and links The following documentation is available, further describing the OSIa ice drift product.