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This period culminated in a static phase that lasted about two centuries, framed by a formative stage in the later part of the eighth century BCE, where the epic was taking on its present shape, and a definitive stage, in the middle of the sixth, where the epic reached its final form. The basic historical fact remains, in any case, that the figure of Homer had become, by the Classical period of the fifth century BCE, a primary culture hero credited with the creation of the Iliad and Od yssey.
Little wonder, then, that so many Greek cities - Athens included - claimed to be his birthplace. Such rivalry for the possession of Homer points to the increasingly widespread refinement of his identity through the cultural significance of Homeric song.
- Songs by Homer?
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Of course the subject of the Iliad is not just the Anger of Achilles in particular and the age of heroes in general. The Iliad purports to say everything that is worth saying about the Greeks - the Hellenes, as they called themselves in the Classical period. Not that the Iliad calls them Greeks.
The Greeks in this song are a larger-than-life cultural construct of what they imagined themselves to have been in the distant age of heroes. These Greeks are retrojected Greeks, given such alternative Homeric names as Achaeans , Argives , Danaans , all three of which are used interchangeably to refer to these heroic ancestors whose very existence in song is for the Greeks the basis for their own self-definition as a people.
It is as if the Iliad , in mirroring for the Greeks of the present an archetypal image of themselves in the past, served as an autobiography of a people. On the surface these ancestral Greeks of the Iliad are on the offensive, attacking Troy. Underneath the surface, they are on the defensive, trying desperately to ward off the fiery onslaught of Hektor, the leading Trojan hero. At a climactic point of the battle, Hektor shouts out to his men:. With all their ships beached on the shores of the Hellespont, marked for destruction by the threatening fire of Hektor, the ancestral Greeks are vulnerable to nothing short of extinction.
The Iliad makes it quite clear: if their ships burn, the Greeks will never return home, to become the seafaring nation who are the present audience of the Iliad. In the Iliad , the very survival of this seafaring nation is at stake. But what exactly is this Greek nation? The very idea of nationhood is an incongruity if we apply it to the era when the Iliad and Odyssey took shape.
From the eighth through the fifth centuries BCE, the geographical area that we now recognize as ancient Greece was an agglomerate of territories controlled by scores of independent and competing city-states. Each city-state, or polis , was a social entity unto itself, with its own government, customary laws, religious practices, dialect. The topic of the city-state brings us to the hidden agenda of the Odyssey. The fragmentation of Greece in this era was so pronounced that, looking back, it is hard to find genuine instances of cultural cohesion.
One early example is the Olympic Games; another is the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi; still another, and the most obvious, is the poetic legacy of Homer and Hesiod. The Homeric Iliad and Odyssey together can be viewed as a marvel of cultural synthesis, integrating the diverse institutional heritage of this plurality of city-states, this kaleidoscopic Greek-speaking world, into a unified statement of cultural identity, of civilization. The cultural universalism of the Iliad and Od yssey can best be appreciated when we consider the extent of the diversity that separated the Greek city-states from each other.
Nowhere is this diversity more apparent than in the realm of religious practices.
How people worshipped any given god, as we know from the historical evidence of the Classical era and thereafter, differed dramatically from one city-state to another. Yet the Iliad and Odyssey spoke of the gods in a way that united the varied cultural perceptions and sensitivities of a vast variety of city-states, large and small. The religious dimensions of these gods, with Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Athena, and Apollo in the forefront, were destined to be shaded over by this Homeric process of synthesis, but their divine reality became highlighted as a cultural permanence in the same process.
The modern reader may be struck by what seems on the surface to be a distinctly irreligious attitude of Homeric song towards the gods, but the universal cultural edifice of these gods' lofty abode on Mount Olympus was in fact built up from a diversity of unspoken religious foundations. When Herodotus is saying that Homer and Hesiod, by way of their songs, had given the Greeks their first definitive statement about the gods, he is in effect acknowledging the Olympian synthesis that had been bestowed on civilization by Homeric and Hesiodic song.
- The Songs of War.
- G. S. Kirk, The Songs of Homer - Persée.
- The Songs of Homer (Kirk).
- The Songs of the War?
It is the history of Greek civilization, then, that the Homeric Iliad and Odyssey define. To say that an epic like the Iliad is about the Greeks and what it is to be a Greek is not far from saying that the Iliad is about Achilles. We have seen how this hero, as the very first words of the song make clear, is the focal point of the Iliad. Given the importance of the Iliad to the Greeks, we may interpret this single fact to mean that Achilles is also a focal point of Greek civilization.
Homer - Wikipedia
Just how important he is, however, can be illustrated beyond the testimony of Homeric song. Let us take for example an inherited custom connected with the premier social event for all Greeks, the Olympic Games. We know from ancient sources that the traditional ceremony inaugurating this seasonally recurring pan-Hellenic event centers on Achilles: on an appointed day when the Games are to begin, the local women of Elis, the place where the Olympics were held, fix their gaze on the sun as it sets into the Western horizon - and begin ceremonially to weep for the hero. The prestige accorded by ancient Greek civilization to the figure of Achilles, and the strong emotional attachment that goes with it, is worthy of our attention especially because modern readers, both men and women, young and old, often find themselves relatively unresponsive to this sullen and darkly brooding hero.
Few today feel empathy for his sorrow, which the hero of the Iliad himself describes as an everlasting one. The modern reader finds it much easier to feel empathy for Hektor, the champion hero of the Trojans, whose heartwrenching farewell to his wife and small son, soon to become his widow and orphan, is often singled out by modern readers as the most memorable scene of the Iliad. For the ancient Greeks as well, we may be sure, the figure of Hektor evoked empathy. The difference, however, is that for them, the pathos of Hektor resembles most closely the pathos of Achilles himself.
Just as Hektor's death evokes the sorrow of unfulfilled promise, even more so does the death of Achilles. While Hektor is the idealized husband and father cut down in his prime, Achilles is the idealized bridegroom, sensual in his heroic beauty and likewise doomed to an untimely death. In the songs of Sappho, it is Achilles who figures as the ultimate bridegroom. The very mention of him in song conjures up the picture of a beautiful flower cut down at the peak of its bloom.
The Songs of Homer
This is how his own mother sings of Achilles in Scroll 18 of the Iliad , in a beautiful song of lament that prefigures the hero's untimely death:. All the wistful beauty of sorrow for a life cut short comes back to life in song, and that song of the hero's mother extends into a song that becomes the Iliad itself. For the culture of the Greeks was, and still is, a song culture. For them, to weep is to sing a lament, and the sorrow, in all its natural reality of physically crying and sobbing, is not at all incompatible with the art of the song: it flows into it.
If we consider the evocative power that we can sometimes find in even the simplest contemporary popular tunes about the sorrows of war and death, we will have at least something to compare with the emotional and esthetic response to Achilles in the song culture of the ancient Greek world. Thinking of Achilles leads to beautiful sad songs.
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As we recall the detail about the institutionalized weeping of the local women at the commencement of the Olympics, we may note that this act of weeping was considered an act of singing - or keening. In the words of the fifth-century poet Pindar, the keening of the Muses, the "Maidens of Helicon," over the dead Achilles extends into the song of the present:.
The sadness of Achilles' song is of course a necessity of tradition, just as the hero's death, his mortality, is necessary. The hero, the story of the hero, cannot be complete if he lives on. For in death the hero wins the ultimate prize of life eternal in song. As Achilles himself declares, his heroic death will transcend the fleeting beauty of earthbound life:. The Greek word kleos , which translates here as "glory," conventionally refers to the glory of song, while aphthiton or "unfading" evokes the vitality of a blossoming plant.
His glory in song, then, unlike the beauty of a flower, will never fade. How and J. Wells take time to describe the details of the Dorian Invasion in a section they entitled, "Evidence for reality of Dorian invasion", claiming that the facts concerning the invasion were "fully-developed" in the time of Herodotos. The "evidence" which follows amounts to thus: quoting Tyrtaios fr. In the end, no matter how it happened, the great city centers like Mycenae were abandoned, Linear B disappeared, commerce collapseed, and people began living sparsely and further apart.
It is here that the scholars of yesteryear have placed the Dorian Invasion to account for these so-called "Dark Ages" and to explain how the Classical Greeks linked to the Mycenaeans, but the theory has been rather neatly taken apart and is unable to stand up to scrutiny. The very passages in the Greek historians which have been used to defend the theory of a Dorian Invasion actually dispel every so-called fact used to justify continued belief in the existence of such an event.
The "Homeric Question" Sometimes referred to as "The Homeric Problem", the question which has plagued scholars from the ancient world onward is "who was Homer? It is more than likely that we will never answer these questions, but it quite fun to play detective. The text must have been subjected to so many interpolations, emendations, corrections, and one imagines deletions and similar erasures, that the mind reels at fathoming how many persons have had a voice and a hand in shaping the The Iliad as we have it today. What is it which lies inside each successive generation of humankind to which this poem has spoken and imparted some wisdom concerning the human condition?
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